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Full text of "Byzantine Churches In Constantinople"

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334                         BYZANTINE CHURCHES                       CHAP.
that date, is an unusually early example of this four-columned type* It is generally considered that this plan type dates at the earliest from the eleventh century. There is, however, no reason to believe that the church was rebuilt later ; it is a perfectly normal example of its class, and nowhere is an early  example more probable than in Constantinople. The Myrelaion may accordingly be taken as marking the commencement of the late Byzantine period in Constantinople,
The churches are now smaller ; the gynecaeum, where present, is placed over the narthex ; the use of patterning in the brickwork of the exterior, which occurs in some of the Basilian churches (e.g. the cornice of S. Theodosia), now becomes important, and alternate coursing in brick and stone is used with great effect. From this time onwards narthexes were frequently added to the existing churches.
S. Saviour Pantokrator (i 118-1143 A.D.) is the largest late church in Constantinople, and is an unusually large church of its type. S, Saviour Pantepoptes (108 i-i 118), S. Theodore, and S. John in Trullo, belong to the same class. The last, with its circular dome and apse, is probably the latest of the three. S. Thekla (1057-1059) and Bogdan Serai are examples of hall churches of the same period.
The monastery of Manuel was founded in 829-842 A.D., but the building believed to be the refectory is probably much later. As part of the monastery it might, of course, have been built at any date subsequent to the foundation of the House.
The architecture of the Sanjakdar does not correspond to the date of the foundation of the monastery of the Gastria in the ninth century. The building is certainly of late date, subsequent to the eleventh century. Of the Balaban Mesjedi it is impossible to say anything. It is the remnant of some Byzantine structure.
From 1204 to 1261, during the Latin Empire, we need not look for much building in the Greek Church. Soon after the fall of that empire comes the erection of S. Mary of the Mongols (1261-1282) and Monastir Jamissi (1282-1328). In both cases the architectural character is what we should expect. Following on this we have, in the